Friday, March 20, 2020

Guy de Maupassant, Father of the Short Story

Guy de Maupassant, Father of the Short Story French writer Guy de Maupassant (August 5, 1850–July 6, 1893) wrote short stories such as The Necklace and Bel-Ami as well as poetry, novels, and newspaper articles. He was an author of the naturalist and realist schools of writing and is best known for his short stories, which are considered highly influential on much of modern literature. Fast Facts: Guy de Maupassant Known For: French author of short stories, novels, and poetryAlso Known As: Henri Renà © Albert Guy de Maupassant, Guy de Valmont, Joseph Prunier, MaufrigneuseBorn: August 5, 1850 in Tourville-sur-Arques,  FranceParents: Laure Le Poittevin, Gustave de MaupassantDied: July 6, 1893 in Passy,  Paris,  FranceEducation: Institution Leroy-Petit, in Rouen,  Lycà ©e Pierre-Corneille  in RouenPublished Works:  Boule de Suif, La Maison Tellier, The Necklace, A Piece of String,  Mademoiselle Fifi,  Miss Harriet,  My Uncle Jules,  Found on a Drowned Man, The Wreck, Une Vie, Bel-Ami, Pierre et JeanNotable Quote: If I could, I would stop the passage of time. But hour follows on hour, minute on minute, each second robbing me of a morsel of myself for the nothing of tomorrow. I shall never experience this moment again. Early Life Its believed de Maupassant was born at the Chà ¢teau de Miromesniel, Dieppe on Aug. 5, 1850. His paternal ancestors were noble, and his maternal grandfather Paul Le Poittevin was the artist Gustave Flauberts godfather. His parents separated when he was 11 years old after his mother, Laure Le Poittevin, left his father Gustave de Maupassant. She took custody of Guy and his younger brother, and it was her influence that led her sons to develop an appreciation for literature. But it was her friend Flaubert who opened doors for the budding young writer. Flaubert and de Maupassant Flaubert would prove to be a major influence on de Maupassants life and career.  Much like Flauberts paintings, de Maupassants stories told the plight of the lower classes. Flaubert took young Guy as a kind of protege, introducing him to significant writers of the day such as Emile Zola and Ivan Turgenev. It was through Flaubert that de Maupassant became familiar with (and part of) the naturalist school of writers, a style that would permeate nearly all of his stories. De Maupassant Writing Career From 1870-71, Guy de Maupassant served in the French Army. He then became a government clerk. He moved from Normandy to Paris after the war, and after leaving his clerkship in the French Navy he worked for several prominent French newspapers. In 1880, Flaubert published one of his most famous short stories Boule du Suif, about a prostitute pressured to provide her services to a Prussian officer. Perhaps his best-known work, The Necklace, tells the story of Mathilde, a working-class girl who borrows a necklace from a wealthy friend when she attends a high society party. Mathilde loses the necklace and works the rest of her life to pay for it, only discovering years later that it was a worthless piece of costume jewelry. Her sacrifices had been for nothing. This theme of a working-class person unsuccessfully trying to rise above their station was common in de Maupassants stories. Even though his writing career spanned barely a decade, Flaubert was prolific, writing some 300 short stories, three plays, six novels, and hundreds of newspaper articles. The commercial success of his writing made Flaubert famous and independently wealthy. De Maupassant Mental Illness At some point in his 20s, de Maupassant contracted syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease that, if left untreated, leads to mental impairment. This is unfortunately what happened to de Maupassant. By 1890, the disease had started to cause increasingly strange behavior. Some critics have charted his developing mental illness through the subject matter of his stories. But de Maupassants horror fiction is only a small portion of his work, some 39 stories or so. But even these works had significance; Stephen Kings famous novel The Shining has been compared to Maupassants The Inn. Death After a gruesome suicide attempt in 1891 (he tried to cut his throat),  de Maupassant spent the last 18 months of his life in a Paris mental home, the celebrated private asylum of Dr. Espirit Blanche. The suicide attempt was believed to be a result of his impaired mental state. Legacy Maupassant is often described as the father of the modern short story- a literary form thats more condensed and immediate than the novel. His work was admired by his contemporaries and imitated by those who came after him. Some of the best-known authors for whom Maupassant was an inspiration include W. Somerset Maugham, O. Henry, and Henry James. Sources Dumesnil, Renà ©, and Martin Turnell. â€Å"Guy De Maupassant.†Ã‚  Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica, 1 Aug. 2018.â€Å"Guy De Maupassant.†Ã‚  Short Stories and Classic Literature.Guy De Maupassant.†Ã‚  Guy De Maupassant - New World Encyclopedia.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Historical Timeline of the Animal Rights Movement

Historical Timeline of the Animal Rights Movement This timeline is an overview of some of the major events in the modern animal rights movement. Concern for animal suffering is not a new or modern idea. The ancient Hindu and Buddhist scriptures advocate a vegetarian diet for ethical reasons. The ideology has evolved continuously over millennia, but many animal activists point to the publication of â€Å"Animal Liberation† in 1975 as the catalyst for the modern American animal rights movement. Early Events and Legislation 1635: First known animal protection legislation passes, in Ireland, An Act against plowing by the tayle, and pulling the wooll off living sheep.   1641: The Massachusetts colonys Body of Liberties includes regulations against Tirranny or Crueltie towards animals. 1687: Japan reintroduces a ban on eating meat and killing animals.   1780: English philosopher Jeremy Bentham argues for better treatment of animals. 19th Century 1822: British Parliament passes Act to Prevent the Cruel and Improper Treatment of Cattle. 1824: The first Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals is founded in England, by Richard Martin, Arthur Broome, and William Wilberforce. 1835: The first Cruelty to Animal Acts is passed in Britain.   1866: The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals is founded by New Yorker  Henry Bergh. 1875: The National Anti-Vivisection Society is established in Britain by Frances Power Cobbe.   1892: English social reformer Henry Stephens Salt publishes Animals Rights: Considered in Relation to Social Progress. 20th Century 1944: English animal rights advocate Donald Watson founds the Vegan Society in Britain.   1975:  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Animal Liberation,† by philosopher Peter Singer is published. 1979:  Ã‚  Animal Legal Defense Fund is established, and National Anti-Vivisection Society establishes World Lab Animal Day, on April 24. The day has evolved into World Laboratory Animal Week. 1980:  People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is founded and â€Å"Animal Factories† by attorney Jim Mason and philosopher Peter Singer is published. 1981:  Farm Animal Reform Movement is officially founded. 1983:  Farm Animal Reform Movement establishes World Farm Animals Day on October 2 and â€Å"The Case for Animal Rights,† by philosopher Tom Regan is published. 1985:  The first annual Great American Meatout is organized by Farm Animal Reform Movement. 1986:  Fur Free Friday, an annual nation-wide fur protest on the day after Thanksgiving, begins; and  Farm Sanctuary is founded. 1987:  California high school student Jennifer Graham makes national headlines when she refuses to dissect a frog and  Diet for a New America by John Robbins is published. 1989:  Avon stops testing their products on animals, and  In Defense of Animals launches their campaign against Proctor Gamble’s animal testing. 1990:  Revlon stops testing their products on animals. 1992:  Animal Enterprise Protection Act is passed. 1993:  General Motors stops using live animals in crash tests and  The Great Ape Project is founded by Peter Singer and Paola Cavalieri. 1994:  Tyke the elephant goes on a rampage, killing her trainer and escaping from the circus before being gunned down by police. 1995: Compassion Over Killing is founded by Erica Meier. 1996:  Vegetarian activist and former cattle rancher Howard Lyman appears on Oprah Winfrey’s talk show, leading to a defamation lawsuit filed by Texas Cattlemen. 1997:  PETA releases an undercover video showing animal abuse by Huntington Life Sciences. 1998:  A jury finds in favor of Lyman and Winfrey in the defamation lawsuit filed by Texas Cattlemen, and an investigation by The Humane Society of the US reveals that Burlington Coat Factory is selling products made from dog and cat fur. 21st Century 2001: Compassion Over Killing conducts an open rescue at a battery hen facility, documenting abuses and rescuing eight hens. 2002:  Dominion by Matthew Scully is published, and  McDonald’s settles a class-action lawsuit over their non-vegetarian french fries. 2004:  Clothing chain Forever 21 promises to stop selling fur. 2005:  The US Congress pulls funding for inspections of horse meat. 2006:  The SHAC 7 are convicted under the Animal Enterprise Protection Act;  Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act is passed, and an investigation by the Humane Society of the US reveals that items labeled as â€Å"faux† fur at Burlington Coat Factory are made of real fur. 2007:  Horse slaughter ends in the United States, but live horses continue to be exported for slaughter,  Barbaro dies at the Preakness. 2009:  The European Union bans cosmetics testing and bans the sale or import of seal products. 2010:  A killer whale at SeaWorld kills his trainer, Dawn Brancheau.  SeaWorld is  fined $70,000  by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.   2011:  National Institute of Health stops funding of new experiments on chimpanzees;  President Obama and Congress legalize horse slaughter for human consumption in the US. As of spring of 2014, no horse slaughterhouses have opened. 2012:  Iowa passes the nations fourth ag-gag law;  An international convention of neuroscientists declares that non-human animals have consciousness. The declarations main author goes vegan. The Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness is published in Britain, which states that many nonhuman animals possess the neurological structures to generate consciousness.   2013:  The documentary Blackfish reaches a mass audience, causing widespread  public criticism of SeaWorld. 2014: India bans cosmetic testing on animals, the first Asian country to do so. 2015-2016: SeaWorld announces it will end its controversial orca shows and breeding program.   2017: The Appropriations Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives  votes  27 to 25 in favor of re-opening the practice of horse slaughter. Doris Lin, Esq.  is an animal rights attorney and Director of Legal Affairs for the Animal Protection League of NJ.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Financial Institutions and Market - Financial Innovation Essay

Financial Institutions and Market - Financial Innovation - Essay Example Advantages include; the creation of new securities, creation of new markets and financial institutions and the economic growth. The creation of new securities provides the investors with new avenues to invest in and it injects fresh capital which in turn leads towards increased employment opportunities. The disadvantages include; use of financial innovation for deceptive purposes such as off balance sheet financing and the creation of special purpose vehicles. The paper discusses two cases related to off balance sheet that shed light over the detrimental impacts of financial innovation over the economy as a whole. Financial Institutions & Market – Financial Innovation There has been significant debate regarding the validity of financial innovation. It has been suggested that financial innovation plays a vital role in the economic growth and prosperity and that, resultantly, financial system regulators should resist over-regulation that might create hindrances in the way of inn ovation. As a counter argument, it has been brought to foreground that certain financial innovations have been blamed for creating enormous economic crises in the recent past. As a result of such financial crises, governments all over the globe are taking extraordinary measures in order to avert more of such crises and they are imposing new financial regulations in this regard. The question that would be discussed in the following paper is whether the potential benefits of the financial system innovation should deter regulators from imposing restrictions on the activities of financial institutions. ADVANTAGES OF FINANCIAL INNOVATION Even though financial innovation has been blamed as the main reason behind financial crises, it has also been said that financial innovation is very important for economic growth. The economic crises that have been said to be due to financial innovation are actually due to the improper use of financial innovation. Innovation, if used properly and constru ctively, can lead towards growth and prosperity in the economy of a country. Following are some of the benefits of financial innovation: Creation of New Securities Financial innovation is the leading reason behind the creation of new securities. Any creation of securities leads towards new capital which is used for economic growth. By creating of new securities, investors invest in the securities and earn returns while the institutions that create such securities invest the capital for the purpose of economic growth (Kimmel, 2010). The resultant growth creates new job opportunities and adds new revenue to the overall economic system of the country. In this way, financial innovation leads towards new investment and financial growth. Creation of New Markets and Institutions Financial innovation is the reason behind the creation of new markets and financial institutions. For example; the concept of ‘Collective Investment Schemes (CIS)’ came to foreground due to financial i nnovation and this method is being widely used by investors all around the world to create and invest in investment schemes with different investment portfolios (Boot & Thakor, 1997). The investment schemes

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Norway Builds the World's Most Humane Prison Assignment

Norway Builds the World's Most Humane Prison - Assignment Example This institution’s peculiarity is that it provides numerous conveniences for convicts and even their families. Halden Fengsel’s governor claims that the prison’s main goal is to help the inmates to change for the better, so the main focus lies on respect towards human rights. Such a lenience of Norwegian penalty system is quite effective. The country’s recidivism rate is much less than elsewhere. Much attention is paid to design of the prison. The usage of materials, building layout, interior and even cell lighting are carefully planned in order to avoid the feeling of incarceration. To crown it all, the prisoners and guard stuff have very close relationship which helps to eschew social distance and dominance of the latter. To sum up, in the article by William Lee Adams a new type of prison is described. This is an innovative penalty institution, where the rights of prisoners are respected and not infringed upon. Warm relationship and deference serve here as the most powerful force of rehabilitation and convicts’ reintegration into new

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Zigbee Networks And Applications Information Technology Essay

Zigbee Networks And Applications Information Technology Essay ZigBee networking has number of applications, these applications are not just limited to home automation, inventory tracking, and healthcare but its applications are taking into account in daily life routine. Home automation is one of the major application areas for ZigBee wireless networking. The typical data rate for home automation application is 10kbps in a typical resident building. The applications of home automations are further explained. Security Systems A security system might have several sensors, including motion detectors, security cameras and glass-break sensors, these devices are required to communicate with the central security centre by either wires or a wireless network. ZigBee-based security systems are simple to install and easy to upgrade Although ZigBee has a low data rate, it has still the capability to transfer images wirelessly with reasonable quality., ZigBee has been used in a wireless camera system which do record the videos of visitor at a Front door and then transmit these recordings to monitor inside the house. Meter-Reading Systems Utility meters are needed to be read on a regular basis so as to generate utility bills. One simple way to do this task is by reading the meter manually at home premises and then enters values into a database. A ZigBee-based automatic meter-reading (AMR) system has the capability to create wireless mesh networks across residential complexes that makes link meters with utilities corporate offices. By using AMR, it provides the opportunity to remotely monitor the residenceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s electric, gas, and water usage. In this way it eliminates the need for a human to visit each residential unit on a monthly basis. Irrigation Systems ZigBee can be used as a part of sensor based irrigation system which is used in efficient water management. Sensors are installed across the landscaping field which can communicate to the irrigation panel. It communicates the soil moisture level at different depth levels to the irrigation panel. The panel controller than tells the watering time based on moisture level, plant type, time of day and the season readings. Light Control Systems One of the classic examples of using ZigBee is Light control in a house or commercial building. In a typical light installation system, it is necessary to install a wire from the light to a switch in order to turn on or off the light. No wired connection between the light and the switch is necessary if the light and switch are equipped with the ZigBee devices. In this way, any switch in the house can be assigned to turn on and off a specific light. A ZigBee-enabled recess light is much expensive compared to a regular recess light, but the installation cost of a ZigBee-enabled light is lower than regular recess light as it requires no extra wiring to a wall switch. Wireless remotes to control the lights is not a new concept in our daily life, By using ZigBee it provides the opportunity to implement this versatile concept on a large scale by ensuring long battery life. Multi zone HVAC Systems The multizone control system have the ability to allow a single heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) unit to have separate temperature zones in a house. Zoning the HVAC system can be very helpful as it saves the energy by controlling the air flow to each room and preventing the cooling or heating to unnecessary areas. ZigBee devices control the motors based on the commands they receive from the main HVAC zone Control panel and temperature sensors. Hotel Guest Room Access ZigBee-based systems can replace the magnetic key card systems which are widely used in hotels in order to access the guest rooms. The traditional room are accessed by plastic cards which have a magnetic strip on their back. The card reader installed on the guest door reads the information that is encoded on to the magnetic strip to allow or deny access to the room. The Installation of this reader to each door requires wiring through the door. A ZigBee- based room access system have a portable ZigBee device that acts as the key and a battery-powered ZigBee device inside the door that locks and unlocks it, the ZigBee based room access system do not require wiring of each door. In this way it reduces the installation cost. Fire Extinguishers Fire extinguishers are required to be checked after every 30 days in order to make sure that all canisters are charged and the filled in pressures are correct. Instead of checking the extinguishers manually, the alternative way is to connect a ZigBee-based monitoring system a sensor is to each fire extinguisher which will monitor its status and it will wirelessly communicate with the coordinator when maintenance is needed. A ZigBee-based monitoring system saves time and labor cost. It also helps to improve fire safety when the fire extinguisher is not working properly by alerting the authority. Remote Control ZigBee have applications that are used in wireless remote controls, game Controllers, a wireless mouse for a personal computer, and many other applications An infrared (IR) conventional remote control communicates with televisions, DVDs, and other entertainment devices through infrared signals. There are limitations of IR remotes. One of the limitation is that IR remotes that provide only one-way communication from the remote to the entertainment device. Also, IR signals do not have the ability to penetrate through the walls and other objects and it therefore require line of sight for its peroration properly. Radio frequency (RF) signals have the ability penetrate through walls and most objects. ZigBee is a suitable replacement technology for IR technology in remote controls as it is low cost and has long battery. ZigBee can be used to create a two way communication between the remote control and the entertainment device. For example, song information or on-screen programming options can be directly fed in to the remote itself, even when the remote control is not in the same room as the entertaining device. Healthcare One of applications of ZigBee in the healthcare industry is to monitor a Patientà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s vital health information remotely. For example a patient is staying at his home but for him it is important that his physician monitor his blood pressure and heart rate regularly continuously. A ZigBee network has the ability to collect the data from various sensors that are connected to the patient. The 802.15.4 standard uses a 128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) technology in order secure the data flow between ZigBee devices and other networks. A patient wears a ZigBee device that is interfaced with different sensors, such as a blood pressure sensor, which gathers the information from these sensors on a periodic basis. The received information is transmitted to a ZigBee gateway. A ZigBee gateway provides the interface between ZigBee and other types of networks, such as an Internet Protocol (IP) network. The patientà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s gathered information is then transmitted via Internet to a personal computer of a physician or nurse that they use to Monitor the patientà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s health status. This system could help hospitals in order to improve patient care and give some relieve hospital overcrowding by giving them the authority to monitor patients at home.

Friday, January 17, 2020

Operations Management Report on Lux Soap Essay

Acknowledgement: We thank all those people who helped us in preparing this report. Immense hard work has been done by all the members of our group in compilation of this report. We also thank our instructor Mr Jawad Bhatti, who has helped us always by providing us with the much-needed guidance, kind behavior, moral support and her valuable time. Our contact person in Unilever Pakistan, Ms. Sarah Siddiqui also provided us with her expertise in the construction of the report and we are extremely grateful to her for providing us with valuable insight and information with respect to LUX. The preparation of this report was a wonderful learning experience. We learnt to work in a group efficiently and equally. The experience gained by the preparation of this report will surely be beneficial for us in the future, always. 2 Executive Summary: Lux soap first produced in United Kingdom in 1899. It was produced by British company name Lever Brothers. Lever Brothers was founded in 1885 by William Hesketh Lever and his brother James. They using glycerin and vegetable oil such as palm oil to manufacture soap called â€Å"Sunlight Soap.† The flaked version of soap called Lux soap. Glycerin was a lucrative byproduct of the soap making process, and by the end of 1886, Lever brothers also had a glycerin factory. The beauty soap industry has a few major producers of which Unilever holds market share of slightly less than 50%. Other competing brands like Dove, Rexona and Capri have started to have a strong consumer base, but LUX.’s product features distribution and promotional activities have created high brand loyalty for which it is still the market leader. Since the 1930s, more than 400 of the world’s most famous female celebrities have been associated with Lux. Sarah Jessica Parker, Katrina Kaif, Aishwarya Rai and Mahira Khan are some actresses featured in Lux advertising campaigns in US, India and Pakistan. Today, Lux is the market leader in several countries including Pakistan, Brazil, India, Thailand and South Africa. Developed by Unilever, Lux (soap) is now headquartered in Singapore. Introduction Lux is a global brand developed by Unilever. The range of products includes beauty soaps, shower gels, bath additives, hair shampoos and conditioners. The brand was founded by the Lever Brothers (today known as Unilever) in 1899. The name changed from â€Å"Sunlight Flakes† to â€Å"Lux† in 1900, a Latin word for â€Å"light† and suggestive of â€Å"luxury.† In 1924, it became the first mass market toilet soap in the world. It is noted as a brand that pioneered female celebrity endorsements. As of 2005, Lux revenue is at 1.0 billion euros, with market shares spread out to more than 100 countries across the globe. Lux toilet soap was launched in the United States in 1925 and in the United Kingdom in 1928. Subsequently, Lux soap has been marketed in several forms, including hand wash, shower gel and cream bath soap. Since the 1930s, more than 400 of the world’s most famous female celebrities have been associated with Lux. Sarah Jessica Parker, Katrina Kaif, Aishwarya Rai and Mahira Khan are some actresses featured in Lux advertising campaigns in US, India and Pakistan. Today, Lux is the market leader in several countries including Pakistan, Brazil, India, Thailand and South Africa. Developed by Unilever, Lux (soap) is now headquartered in Singapore. About Unilever Unilever is a multinational consumer product manufacturing giant operating in over hundred countries all around the globe. Unilever Pakistan is the Pakistan chapter of Unilever, where the company holds 60.75% share whereas the Government of Peoples Republic of Pakistan holds 39.25% share. Unilever’s one of the most popular brand in Pakistani  market is LUX. They have segmented the local market for  LUX according to geographical locations. It further  differentiates these segments into Socio Economic Cluster  (SEC) which takes into account the criteria of education  and profession which ultimately measures the financial  ability of consumers. The cluster is divided into five parts starting from A to E. Unilever targets the urban and sub urban upper middle class and middle class segment of the population, who falls under A to C of SEC. Tactical marketing tools, 4P’s,  are extensively used by the  company  to  market  LUX.  Though LUX is produced in  Pakistan, Unilever Pakistan  maintains the same standard  all around the globe. The  product is available in six  different  fragrances  under  three different sizes. Since the  demand  for  beauty  soap  market is to a great extent oligopolistic, variations in price lead to price war which can eventually break down the company’s market share.  Thus Unilever cannot provide a better price than its competitors. But the price is affordable by most of the people. Unilever Pakistan has outsourced its distribution channels to third party distributors which allow them to distribute LUX in massive   bulks amounting to around ten million pieces. It undertakes the largest promotional activities in the beauty soap industry. The beauty soap industry has a few major producers of which Unilever holds market share of slightly less than 50%. Other competing brands like Dove, Rexona and Capri have started to have a strong consumer base, but LUX.’s product features distribution and promotional activities have created high brand loyalty for which it is still the market leader. History of lux soaps: Lux soap first produced in United Kingdom in 1899. It  was produced by British company name Lever  Brothers. Lever Brothers was founded in 1885 by  William Hesketh Lever and his brother James. They  using glycerin and vegetable oil such as palm oil to  manufacture soap called â€Å"Sunlight Soap.† The flaked  version of soap called Lux soap. Glycerin was a  lucrative byproduct of the soap making process, and  by the end of 1886, Lever brothers also had a glycerin  factory. Lever opened their small office in New York in 1895. The company started selling Sunlight and Lifebuoy but did not doing well until 1916. Lux soap was first launched in United States in 1916. The Lux trademark  was registered in United States in 1900.  Lux soap was launched in India in 1929  and later in Pakistan. The soap’s very first  advertisement  featured  actress  Leela  Chitnis as its brand ambassador. It was  popularly known as ‘the beauty soap of  film stars.  From 1930s right through 1970s, Lux soap colors and packaging were altered several times to reflect fashion trends. In 1958 five colors were made up the range: pink, white, blue, green and yellow. In 1990s, Lux launching its own range of shower gels, liquid soaps and moisturizing bars. Today, Lux soap is sold in 100 countries and sales achieved 1.0 billion euros in 2005 alone. From 1930s right through 1970s, Lux soap colors and packaging were altered several times to reflect fashion trends. In 1958 five colors were made up the range: pink, white, blue, green and yellow. In 1990s, Lux launching its own range of shower gels, liqui d soaps and moisturizing bars. Today, Lux soap is sold in 100 countries and sales achieved 1.0 billion euros in 2005 alone. Building the Beauty Soap Credentials: Introduced in the US in 1924, Lux became the world’s first mass market toilet soap with the tagline â€Å"made as fine as French Soap†. In the first 2 years of launch, Lux concentrated on building its beauty soap credentials. Advertisements offered consumers â€Å"a beauty soap made in the French method† at an affordable price, with the promise of smooth skin. Made with fine-texture, rich in fragrance, and manufactured using a method created in France, the first Lux toilet soap was sold for 10 cents apiece. 1928–1940: 9 out of 10 stars  This era saw key launches of LUX in the UK, India,  Argentina and Thailand. The brand concentrated on  building its association with the increasingly popular  movie world, focusing more on movie stars and their roles  rather than on the product. In 1929, advertising featured  26 of the biggest female stars of the day, creating a huge  impact among the movie-loving target audience. This was  followed by Hollywood Directors talking about the  importance of smooth and youthful skin. This pioneered  the trend of celebrity product endorsements.  In 1931, Lux launched a campaign with older stars, â€Å"I am over 31†. The series of print ads had stars talking about preserving youthful skin. Lux also launched campaigns featuring interviews with Stars and Close Ups of Stars, bringing to life the ‘9 out of 10’ idea 40s & 50s: Romancing the consumer Using movie star as role models, Lux’s strategy was to build relevance by looking at beauty through the consumer’s eyes. While still retaining the star element, the focus   shifted to the consumer and the role of the brand in her life. Advertising commercials showed ordinary looking women with direct references to stars, such as Deanna Durbin. 60s: Romancing the brand The 60’s saw a shift in advertising to product stories and the romanticizing of brand through its â€Å"sensorial & emotional† dimensions. This was the era of ‘the film star feeling’ and the ‘Golden Lux’, featuring stars such as Sandra Dee, Diana Rigg and Samantha Eggar. The bathing ritual, the ‘fantasy’ element that has been the imagery of Lux, was created in this era. The brand also moved forward with launching LUX in the Middle East, entering a more conservative market. 70s: Dimensionalizing beauty Reflecting the shift in beauty trends in the 70s, the Lux stars stepped down from their pedestals and were portrayed as multi-faceted women with natural, wholesome beauty that the ordinary consumer could relate and aspire to. The executions were more of ‘a day in the life’ of the stars with focus on their ‘natural beauty’. Stars included Brigitte Bardot and Natalie Wood. 80s: Owning the category space Establishing itself as THE beauty soap for stars and  beautiful women, the 80s emphasized the importance of  skin care – the first step to beauty. LUX was launched in  China at this time. Sophia Loren, Raquel Welch and Cheryl  Ladd were some famous celebrities used during this time.  In India actresses Hema Malini, Parveen Babi, Madhuri  Dixit, endorsed Lux soap. 90s – Early 2000s: Advanced skin benefits In the 90s, Lux moved from generic beauty benefits to focus on specific benefits and transformation. More emphasis on functionality and variant associations with different 12 skin types as well as mention of ingredients. The communication was far more regional specific and localized, using stars like Malu Mader and Debora Bloch. This period launched product brand extensions Shower Cream and Gels and Lux Super Rich Shampoo in Japan and China. 2000s: Beyond movie stars In early 2000, the focus shifted from specific skin benefits to a stronger emotional space. The brand provided the link between the aspirational role models and real life with the campaign, ‘Lux brings out the star in you’. The benefit was now more than just beauty, it was also about the confidence that comes from beautiful skin. In 2005, Lux encouraged women to celebrate and indulge their femininity with the â€Å"Play with Beauty† philosophy, with stars like Aishwarya Rai. The brand also connected with consumers to take a more ‘active’ stance on beauty. From 2008, building off the brand’s root  strengths, focus has shifted to beauty (vs.  femininity), appealing to consumers’  fantasies and aspirations. Lux believes  that ‘beauty is a female instinct that  shouldn’t be denied’ and showcases the  pleasure that every woman enjoys from  using her beauty, encapsulating that idea  in a simple phrase: Declare your beauty.  Today, LUX products are manufactured at 71 locations with more than 2000 suppliers and associates providing the raw materials. It has key markets in Pakistan, Brazil, USA, China, Bangladesh and South Africa, and is a market leader in India (for soap bars), Pakistan, Brazil, Saudi Arabia (for soap bars), Bangladesh, Thailand and Vietnam. Operations at Lux Unilever has established itself as a leader in the FMCG industry, given its wide product range which consists of home care, skin and hair care, beauty care and oral care products.  An FMCG (Fast-Moving-Consumer-Goods) is a regular model factory. Unilever under its skin care, soap category has 3 skincare brands; Lux (Middle Class), Dove (Upper Class) and Lifebuoy (Lower Class). Lux and Lifebuoy are produced (in-house production) in the factory located at Rahimyaar Khan in Pakistan while Dove is mainly imported as the production methods and procedure are extremely technical and critical to maintain the  high standards of the quality of the product. Another reason for importing Dove is the cost of production. Dove’s manufacturing is expensive due to the ingredients and raw material involved for it to produce in Pakistan and raw materials will be extremely expensive to import. Recently however, a rumor was spread in the market that Unilever Pakistan in order to cut down costs, will be outsourcing its production to Unilever South East Asian countries and will stop all the production in Pakistan. It was a rumor and completely untrue of them to be shifting to Malaysia. Unilever has one of the oldest factories in Pakistan and enjoy high EOS and have denied any intension to move production as it would be too expensive to produce outside Pakistan and import it back. The procurement of palm oil for Lux is the main ingredient in the production and manufacturing of the product. As palm oil is not produced in Pakistan, importing it from foreign suppliers is the best option available and costs are affordable for the company. Before the production is begun, capital expenditure is evaluated after which the setup is done for production in factories. The main raw material is in the production of Lux is palm oil which is imported due to its unavailability in the Pakistani region. This is the major head expense for Lux besides the facility itself. The production method for Lux and Life Buoy is batch processing and Dove is mainly produced through job order processing technique. Production is heavily dependent on palm oil. Production Process: The production method for Lux is batch processing and Dove is mainly produced through job order processing technique. Production is heavily dependent on palm oil. Lux Soap is the combination of animal fat or plant oil and caustic soda. The Soap needs two major raw materials: one is fat and the other one is alkali. Lux soap makers use fat that has been processed into fatty acids. This eradicates various impurities, and it produces as by-product water as an alternative of glycerin. Many vegetable fats, including olive oil and coconut oil, are also used. The alkali most commonly used is sodium hydroxide and sometimes, Potassium hydroxide is also used. Additives are used to enhance the color, texture, and scent of the soap. Palm oil is used for the manufacturing of Lux Soaps which is processed and bleached. This is then divided into two proportions as per the soap requirements; to manufacture Lux and Life buoy. After separation as per the proportions, alkali in the form of sodium hydroxide/ Potassium hydroxide are added to the palm oil barrels. Synthetic chemicals are added to clean and sterilize the mixture to remove any impurities. After this the mixture is divided into categories as per the product variety, after which perfumes and colors are added to give the soap a nice subtle fragrance and attractive color. Fragrances and perfumes are added to the soap mixture to protect the smell of dirt and leave behind a fresh smelling aroma. Substances to enhance the texture of soap include silica, talc, and marble pumice. Soap made without color is of a brown or dull grey color, but Lux manufacturers color the soap to make it more appealing to the end-user. Other material is then added according to the partic ular variety of soap. After the entire process of chemicals and ingredients have been added, the soap is further processed, cut and shaped into bars of soap according to the product specifications and SKUs of the product. The produced soap bars are then sent to packaging, where they are wrapped in the respective prepared packaging and transferred to warehouse until delivery has to be made. Loading and unloading of cargo and also wrapping of cargo is handled by labor but the process is mostly auto mated. Production Flow: Procured Palm Oil Is Processed And Bleached The Oil Is Divided Into Two Portions, For Lux And For Lifebouy Synthetic Chemcials Are Added To Clean And Steerelize The Mixture Other Ingredients Are Added As Per The Requirements Of The Product Variety Perfumes And Colours Are Added To The Mixture The Mixture Is Cooled, Further Processed And Cut Into Soap Bars The Bars Are Sent To Packagining Where They Are Wrapped In The Prepared Packs Packed Soap Bars Are Sent To Warehouses Until Delivery Costing and Expenses: The method of costing used for the manufacture of Lux Soaps is Batch Costing which is a part of Operation Costing. First of all the ingredients of the soap are mixed together in order to make a mixture. The entire mixture for the preparation of the soap produces, approximately, 1 lakh unit of soaps; this 1 lot will be treated as a batch  and will be automatically numbered by the help of machines during the process of packaging. The purpose of manufacturing the soaps using batch costing is that, it becomes easier for the company to track their product in the factory as well as in the market. For example, the end-user finds something wrong with the soap and sent a complain to the company, now if the management finds some defect in the manufacturing of the soap, it can easily track the batch number and withdraw all the soaps from the market that were produced in that particular batch. The cost of unit is determined by dividing the cost of the batch by the number of units produced in that batch. Given below is the cost sheet of Lux soap that shows the Material Cost, Prime Cost as well as the Factory Cost. PARTICULARS AMOUNT (in Rs.) Direct Material Acid Specialty chemicals Ordinary chemicals Perfumes TOTAL 6.45 0.11 0.04 0.81 7.41 Direct Labor 12.6 Direct Expenses 1.73 PRIME COST 21.74 Production Overheads Power 0.62 Maintenance 0.14 FACTORY COST 17 22.50 Revenue Generation and Costing: This table shows the details of the revenue and the cost generated to manufacture Lux Soaps REVENUE AND COST GENERATION OF LUX (Base for the preparation of Cost Sheet) PARTICULARS UNITS AMOUNT (in Rs.) Revenue Generated Sales Price Rs./packet 25 Sales Volume packets 3,20,000 Sales Revenue Rs. (in lakhs) 80 -Acid paise/ ml 4.5 -Specialty chemicals paise/ ml 2.75 -Ordinary chemicals paise/ ml 1.5 -Perfumes paise/ ml 7 Cost Generated Raw Material Prices Raw Material Volumes -Acid In 1000 litres 14.34 -Specialty chemicals In 1000 litres 0.41 -Ordinary chemicals In 1000 litres 0.29 -Perfumes In 1000 litres 1.15 -Acid Rs. (in lakhs) 6.45 -Specialty chemicals Rs. (in lakhs) 0.11 -Ordinary chemicals Rs. (in lakhs) 0.04 -Perfumes Rs. (in lakhs) 0.81 Rs. (in lakhs) 7.41 Raw Material Cost TOTAL Headcount -Manufacturing Numbers 11 -Marketing professionals Numbers 2 -Corporate employees Numbers 1 18 Average Monthly Salary -Manufacturing Rs./Month 10000 -Marketing professionals Rs./Month 15000 -Corporate employees Rs./Month 16500 Bonus on Salary (% of Salary) 12% Employee Cost -Manufacturing Rs./Month (in 10,000) 12.6 -Marketing professionals Rs./Month (in 10,000) 4.53 -Corporate employees Rs./Month (in 10,000) 1.63 TOTAL 18.76 Power Cost Rs. (in lakhs) 0.62 Packaging Cost Rs. (in lakhs) 1.73 Advertising Costs Rs. (in lakhs) 7.23 Commissions Rs. (in lakhs) 5.3 Maintenance Costs Rs. (in lakhs) 0.14 Insurance Premium Rs. (in lakhs) 0.5 Total Costs Rs. (in lakhs) 41.69 19 Strategy and Competitiveness: Vision: â€Å"We help people around the world meet every day needs for nutrition, hygiene and wellbeing, with brands that help people look good, feel good and get more out of life.† A clear direction: Unilever helps people around the world meet every day needs for nutrition, hygiene and wellbeing, with brands that help people look good, feel good and get more out of life. In 2009, they launched called The Compass – Unilever’s strategy for sustainable growth. At the heart of that vision is the philosophy of working to create a better future every day for their consumers and the communities in which they operate. Another key element of their strategy is our aim of doubling the size of Unilever while reducing our impact on the environment. It’s a goal the company is seeking to achieve by developing new ways of doing business through which can minimize our direct impact. The company is also working with suppliers, consumers and the retailers who sell the brands to improve their sustainability credentials too. By combining our multinational expertise with the deep roots in diverse local cultures, Unilever is continuing to provide a range of products to suit a wealt h of consumers. The company is also strengthening its strong relationships in the emerging markets they believe will be significant for future growth. â€Å"Achieving significant growth objectives while decoupling growth from environmental impact is a bold but challenging vision,† says Unilever CEO Paul Polman. â€Å"Not many companies have yet taken it on. But I believe it’s the only viable vision. One that builds on Unilever’s long-term heritage and achievement, while supporting a responsible future.† . Supply Chain Management: The supply chain of Lux is the core feature which looks after the efficient  running of the entire business production and processes. Supply chain is divided into two parts one is the efficiency and the other looks after quality control. Supply chain is the core of Lux sales since it is responsible to make the deliveries to the depot, distributer and ultimately the shops. To ensure the supply chain is well maintained Lux management has weekly meetings and a software to record our forecast, orders placed by distributors (primary sales) and ultimately the orders delivered to the distributor. MSO is in direct contact with the brand team. He is responsible for required production and also informs organizations about lag or delays in production and all logistics involved and other things related to production. Forecast is based on a trend line that is predicted out of exponential sales trend graph and marketing impact added on. There are 2 major raw materials that go into production besides acid and bases. One is palm oil which is ultimately brought to the factory for further processing. The other is perfume which is globally tested and supplied. Various people within the supply chain department are responsible for various functions such as one for forecast and right demand planning, one for production and quality assurance (R&D) and one for ultimate supply and logistics. The management of the supply chain has the following processes which creates the whole flow of the supply chain network: Planning: Demand Planning: This phase is the pre-production phase where business analysts and managers sit together and create a strategic plan based on two core functions, promotional value selling and the base line target. Demand planning is carried out for a period of 5 years at Lux Promotional Value Selling is where Lux managers sit together with the planning team and set targets to achieve in terms of sales and production after advertising and marketing campaigns Base Line is the bottom line target of sales which can be achieved even without any marketing efforts. This is what the brand will achieve in terms of sale at all costs Supply Planning: In this phase the team forecasts the demands with the supply in order to procure the material required for the manufacturing of the soap bars. The supply plan is derived from the demand plan. Material Requirement Plan is the procurement plan in which  vendors and suppliers are identified and the material is procured. The details of procurement are established and are further shared with the budget control team. Master Production Schedule is the detailed plan of how the product will be produced, All details are included in this portion in terms of batches, number of bars produced, time period, production methods and flow, Procurement is done and the material is sent to the production department Production where the manufacturing and packaging is done and stored Distribution where product is warehoused and further sent to distributors around Pakistan and the distributors further give it to whole sellers. Supply Chain flow: Planning Distribution †¢ Demand plan †¢ Supply plan †¢ Warehousing †¢ Distributors Demand Plan Production †¢Manufacturin g †¢Packaging †¢Promotional Value Selling †¢Base line target Procureme nt Supply Plan †¢MPS †¢MRP †¢Buying Department †¢Warehousing Strategy and R&D: Strategy: The strategy used by Unilever is in two regions, production and campaigns. In order to maintain their strategic function, the factory is one of the oldest in Pakistan. It was Rahim Yar Khan and it was initially Unilever HO. It was initially chosen because of the following factors: 1. Proximity to Labor: Majority of labor working in the factory reside close by in Punjab region which is densely populated 2. Proximity to Source of Supply: Water supply from the rivers flowing close by provide ease of water availability (Punjnad) 3. Storage and Warehousing: Since the factory site was owned by Unilever, there was no space shortage problem so expansion and new installments was possible along with ample space for warehousing. 4. Community Considerations 5. Accessibility Research and Development: In order to maintain the competitive advantage of being the leading beauty soap brand of Pakistan, the R&D department also supervises production and packaging. R & D and Supply both monitor production and quality. Each  machine involved is configured for production according to the amount required and for how much should be in each carton so that the carton does not explode. R & D carries out research and tries to increase efficiency by running machine trials. Further to ensure quality product is produced and any likely flaws are eliminated, batch inspections are done at random to check the quality. The Supply Chain acknowledges the capacity of the machinery and production figures, therefore R & D only work on improvement and monitoring. The R&D department also carries out focus groups and sample testing when introducing new variants in the product according to consumer insight gathered through research and development. The R&D is responsible for the 24   suggestions for upcoming variants, which is then strategically planned by the brand team and tested at a small scale. If successful, the new variant is sent for production. Total quality management: TQM is different for every company and is defined by each with respect to 5 major factors: 1. Conformance to specifications 2. Fitness quality 3. Value for price paid 4. Support services 5. Psychological factors Being a manufacturing firm, Lux observes strict manufacturing quality as the focus is on a tangible product with respect to the features, reliability and conformance. Total Quality management for Lux is split into R&D functions which look into formulation, quality assurance, and packaging and ultimately logistics transit trials. Various people within the supply chain department are responsible for various functions such as forecast and demand planning, one for production and quality assurance (R&D) and one for ultimate supply and logistics. The quality of production at lux relies on the following basic concepts: ï‚ ·

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Role of Wrath in the Illiad Essay - 1787 Words

Niraj Khatiwada Seminar Paper Mr. Davis amp; Ms. Davis October 29, 2012 What Role Does Wrath Play In The Iliad? The very first line in the Iliad states the main theme of the whole story, as Homer asks the Muse to sing of the wrath of Achilles. This wrath, all its occurrences, transformations, influences, and consequences, unfold the devastating events in the Iliad. Initially the book starts showing people in a normal state of life, but the main story of Homer’s Iliad, however, starts once there is the ignition of wrath among prominent characters of the story like Agamemnon and Achilles. In the normal state, people are capable of behaving rationally, using experience and wisdom to guide their action. However, during the main†¦show more content†¦Indeed, in their submission to base appetites and shallow grudges, the gods of The Iliad often seem more prone to human folly than the human characters themselves. This can also be seen when Zeus promises to help the Trojans, not out of any profound moral consideration but rather because he owes Thetis a favor. It is not only the mortals who pose anger in the Iliad, but the gods too are not inseparable from it. Once Achilles petitioned Zeus for revenge, Zeus started his involvement in the war, which in turn angered Hera against Zeus, as well as the anger of various other gods, each with his/her own agenda. This way the anger of human beings involved the anger of gods and the situation turned out to be fearful and irreversible. Gods like Athena, Hera, and Aphrodite directly or indirectly took part in the war. Ares and Aphrodite were even wounded in the course of the war. However, the passion of gods was stimulated by human beings that intensified the course of the war. Many mortals were killed in the course of war, and no mortal could survive the attack of gods. With these events, Homer tries to maintain that dealing with the divine power with the limited abilities of mortals will only result in harm to humans. Therefore, he points the danger of the involvement of the anger of gods. Initially human actions initiated events in the Iliad.Show MoreRelatedSympathy : Sympathy And Mutual Identification1435 Words   |  6 PagesSympathy or mutual identification in Iliad Sympathy and mutual identification, serving important psychological roles in Illiad, function differently in regarding heroes and immortals. The words â€Å"sympathy† itself means to feel sorry or grief for others, which is a mutual psychological process. It can be either one-sided or both-sided. â€Å"Mutual identification† means people find something about themselves from others, which is a higher stage of sympathy. For this mutual process to happen, people needRead MoreEssay on Tragic Hero: Agamenon by Aeschylus1447 Words   |  6 Pagesavenged a woman’s loss/a bridal rite that sped the men-of-war† (Aeschylus 110). Agamemnon was put between a rock and a hard place; no one could deny this. He had to either kill his firstborn child and risk the wrath of the furies, or abandon his promises to his fellow sovereigns, risking the wrath of the Olympians. Agamemnon made the impossible choice and killed his daughter. One could make the argument that he was jus t doing his job, but in reality, he made a calculated risk. What is the worst thingRead MoreFacilitating Learning and Assessment in Practice3273 Words   |  14 Pagesword of the day presented by my English instructor. I continued to write poetry, essays, critiques and creative short works throughout junior high and high school, where I was exposed to a bevy of literary compositions such as Steinbeck’s Grapes of Wrath, Huxley’s Brave New World, Dante’s Inferno, Hawthorne’s House of the Seven Gables and The Scarlet Letter, Dostoyevsky’s The Brothers Karamazov, Twain’s A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Arthur Miller’sRead More Comparing the Struggle in Dante’s Inferno and Book VI of The Aeneid4312 Words   |  18 Pagesthe former as â€Å"the canonic epic model† (Jacoff 3). By definition an â€Å"epic model† dramatizes events of historical or legendary importance (Webster). Thus Dante, who â€Å"had no direct access to Homer† and the first epic models of Western literature--The Illiad and The Odyssey--chose Rome’s national epic, The Aeneid, as his historical inspiration (Jacoff 3). Specifically, the Inferno finds its overarching structural and thematic antecedent in Book VI of The Aeneid, where Aeneas descends into the realm of